Rivets: A Highly Useful and Versatile Fastener(difference between pla and abs Phoebe)
- source:WEINBERG CNC Machining
Key Uses and Advantages of Rivets
Aircraft and Aerospace Applications
Rivets play an essential role in aircraft assembly and construction. The demanding environments and forces experienced by aircraft make reliable fasteners a necessity. Thousands of rivets are used to assemble aircraft fuselages, wings, engines, and other components. Rivets provide excellent shear and tensile strength for joining lightweight aluminum alloy and titanium sheets that comprise most aircraft bodies. Rivets also withstand vibration well. Newer aircraft designs utilize flush rivets that provide a smoother aerodynamic surface.
Marine and Shipbuilding Applications
Ships and boats of all types utilize rivets extensively in their construction. The hulls and superstructures of ships must withstand massive forces and harsh ocean environments. Thousands of rivets join together steel plates and frames to form watertight, robust vessels. The longevity and corrosion resistance of riveted joints ensure ships will endure decades of service. Historic vessels such as Titanic were built almost entirely with rivets. Modern shipbuilding continues to rely heavily on advanced rivet technology.
Construction and Infrastructure
Building frameworks, bridges, transmission towers, rail tracks, and construction equipment all employ rivets for strength and durability. Steel I-beams joined by rows of rivets comprise the skeletons of skyscrapers and support bridges spanning rivers and valleys. Rivets assemble cranes and erect the towering scaffolding at construction sites. Outdoor applications benefit from the weather resistance of quality riveted connections. Riveted joints also allow for some flexibility to accommodate forces like seismic events.
Heavy Equipment and Machinery
The high vibration, impact loads, and component stresses in heavy machinery and equipment demand robust fastening systems. Rivets provide strong, reliable connections between parts that must endure sustained punishment. Mining equipment, heavy trucks, bulldozers, backhoes, and industrial machines all incorporate rivets at key joints and fastening points. The ruggedness and high clamping force of rivets prevents loosening over time, keeping equipment safely intact.
Railroads and Mass Transit
Rivets have long served as essential fasteners for rails, locomotives, railcars, and mass transportation infrastructure. Early steam locomotives and boxcars were assembled using red-hot rivets. Today's highspeed trains, subways, and light rail networks continue relying on cold-driven and self-piercing rivets for precision joining of components. Riveted rails maintain alignment under heavy use. Rivets also withstand exposure to weather as well as vibration and impacts for safe, long-lasting rail transport.
While welds dominate modern auto manufacturing, rivets still play a key role. Self-piercing rivets efficiently join the mix of materials found in cars, like steel, aluminum alloys, magnesium, and plastics. Structural components, drivetrain parts, electronics housings, and trim pieces all utilize rivets during vehicle assembly. Rivets join body panels, interior hardware, seats, and doors on the production line. Custom auto builders also rely on rivets for custom fabricating auto designs.
Appliances and Consumer Goods
The manufacture of home appliances, electronics, furniture and other consumer goods regularly uses rivets to assemble parts. Appliance housings often consist of sheet metal panels joined by rivets. Electronics contain numerous riveted assemblies inside. Furniture and sporting goods incorporate rivets at joints for durability. Rivets offer quick, precision fastening of mass produced products made from metal, plastic, or composite materials. Automated riveting systems allow for flexible, high-volume production.
Critical Rivet Materials and Types
Steel offers high shear strength, good vibration resistance, and durability for the most demanding rivet applications. Carbon steel, alloy steel, and stainless steel rivets cover a range of strength and corrosion-resistant needs. Steel rivets come in solid and semi-tubular variants. Common head styles include round, countersunk, and flush. Steel rivets work for high temperature environments as well.
Aluminum and aluminum alloy rivets bring corrosion resistance, good conductivity and low weight to aircraft, marine, electronic, and appliance uses. The most common alloys are 2000, 5000, 6000 and 7000 series. Aluminum is easy to machine and drive during installation. Large surface area rivet heads distribute load over softer aluminum. Self-piercing aluminum rivets allow very quick fastening.
Copper rivets offer excellent corrosion resistance for nautical and outdoor applications. The original copper rivets of the 19th century were hammered into shape while red-hot. Today's cold-driven copper rivets avoid heat damage while maximizing strength. Cup-head copper rivets provide leak-proof joints. Copper's ductility allows for semi-tubular rivets that grip well.
Titanium provides corrosion resistance and very high strength-to-weight ratio. Its biocompatibility makes titanium ideal for medical implants and prosthetics using special rivets. Aerospace applications utilize titanium rivets in high-stress, low-mass locations. The high cost of titanium limits more widespread rivet usage, though its unique properties justify the price premium for critical functions.
Plastics and Composites
Plastic and composite materials continue gaining usage in manufacturing. Plastic and composite rivets offer good vibration damping and electrical insulation while reducing product weight. Thermoplastics like nylon, polyethylene and polypropylene allow color matching ability. Composite rivets with carbon or glass fillers increase strength and stiffness. Self-piercing designs install quickly into plastic and composite assemblies.
Rivet Installation Methods
The traditional technique of hammering rivets utilizes the slam force of a heavy hammer against a bucking bar on the rivet tail to flare out the pin shank. While still used for some field work, hammering has given way to more consistent modern techniques for most applications. Hand hammering requires skill to evenly buck each rivet.
Pneumatic hammers use compressed air power to quickly drive rivet sets against the rivet head while bucking bars support from below. Pneumatic hammers allow faster, higher volume riveting than hammering and reduce worker fatigue. Riveting guns with automatic feeding systems are commonly used for production work. Vibration and noise are drawbacks needing control.
Hydraulic squeezers use water pressurized oil to advance a conical riveting set precisely against the rivet head. Hydraulic force flares the rivet pin shank symmetrically without bucking bar support underneath. Computer-controlled hydraulics permit precise staging and rivet profiling. Hydraulic installation produces clean, uniform rivet compression pressure for quality joints.
A rivet hammering machine delivers rapid, repeated blows to an auto-fed rivet set using compressed air or electromagnetic drivers. Impact riveting quickly and consistently forms multiple rivets with computerized control. Percussive flaring force is uniformly applied for uniform rivet compression. Accessibility to joints is excellent during automated production.
Self-piercing rivets use a semi-tubular pin that presses directly into metal sheets without pre-drilling. The rivet piercing into upper layers clamps materials together while flare grooves expand the pin shank. Driving force comes from hydraulic, pneumatic or electric presses. Self-piercing rivets permit very rapid fastening ideal for auto manufacturing.
Rivets have proven their immense value over millennia and continue playing integral roles across countless industries. Ongoing advances in rivet technology and installation will provide even greater versatility, speed, precision and strength. Lightweight composite and nano-tech rivets open new potential uses, from electronics to extreme environments. One thing is certain - rivets will remain a highly useful and ubiquitous fastener for another 4000 years and beyond. CNC Milling